A chemical compound naturally produced in the brain and present in certain foods, such as chocolate. Anandamide is a cannabinoid neurotransmitter that binds to the CB1 neural receptors located in the central nervous system and the CB2 receptors located elsewhere in the body. It “activates” the effects of THC and other cannabinoids.
The word is taken from The Sanskrit, ananda, which means joy, bliss and delight. Anandamide plays a role in the generation of pleasure and motivation by the brain, as well as in eating and sleeping behaviors, and pain relief. It is being studied as the basis for new treatments for anxiety and depression.
A class of chemical compounds naturally produced by the body (endocannabinoids) and found in the cannabis plant and certain foods (phytocannabinoids). Many cannabinoids can also be manufactured chemically.
Cannabinoids bind onto “receptors” located in the brain (CB1) and elsewhere in the body (CB2), and empower the body’s Endocannabinoid System, which controls and coordinates a wide range of physiological functions. They are becoming recognized as essential to promoting and maintaining overall health.
The most notable cannabinoid is THC, which is the primary psychoactive agent in the cannabis plant. However, cannabis contains at least 85 different phytocannabinoids. Many of these, especially Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinol (CBN) and THC, are being studied, tested and/or prescribed as treatments for various medical conditions.
A wide range of edible, drinkable, ingestible and topical products that contain one or more cannabinoids, such as THC or CBD. Cannabis-infused products include confections, baked goods, beverages, dietary supplements, lotions, creams, oils and others.
Not all cannabis-infused products contain THC or other psychoactive cannabinoids. However, all cannabis-infused products should always be used carefully and responsibly. They are never intended for use by children (unless prescribed by a medical doctor) and should always be stored in a lockable container.
First-time users of infused products containing THC should always start with one-quarter to one-half of the recommended serving. This delivers approximately 6 to 12 milligrams of THC.
One of at least 85 cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant. CBD has powerful antioxidant properties, which account for its recognized neuroprotective and anti-ischemic effects. It also has the potential to provide a broad range of therapeutic effects for patients with rheumatoid arthritis, colitis, liver inflammation, heart disease and diabetes. High-CBD products are currently being studied as treatments for epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease.
As much as 40 percent of the cannabinoids extracted from cannabis can consist of CBD. However, in order to help meet the specific needs of physicians and medicinal cannabis patients, Shango is actively developing cannabis strains that have a far higher CBD content, as well as improved methods of extracting greater amounts of CBD from cannabis plants.
A cannabinoid found only in trace amounts in the cannabis plant. CBN is generally considered to be responsible for the sedative effects of cannabis and is gaining acceptance as a treatment for insomnia. It is also being studied as a topical remedy for burns and various skin conditions, as well as therapy for combating osteoporosis.
A class of byproducts extracted from the cannabis plant that contain concentrated amounts of active ingredients such as cannabinoids and terpenes. The most popular forms of cannabis concentrates include liquid extracts, shatter, wax, butter, crumble, hash, kief and oil.
Cannabis concentrates can be vaporized and inhaled. They can also be used to create cannabis-infused products such as confections, baked goods, beverages and other “edibles,” as well as “ingestible” supplements in capsules, pills or sublingual tinctures, and “topical” lotions, creams and oils, which are absorbed through the skin.
Concentrates are among the most potent cannabis products. Some can have a THC content in excess of 90 percent. Concentrates can be “fractured” to isolate one or more specific cannabinoids (e.g. THC, CBD and CBN) for specific medicinal therapies. Fracturing can also remove THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids.
Prepared foods, such as confections and baked goods, as well as beverages, which contain cannabinoids and release their medicinal or recreational effects when eaten and digested.
Edibles are “infused” with cannabis concentrates or cannabis flower. In either case, the cannabis components must be heated to specific temperatures before or during preparation in order to activate many of their cannabinoids, especially the psychoactive cannabinoid, THC.
Heating, cooking or burning dried cannabis produces a chemical reaction called decarboxylation that changes its biosynthetic precursor, THCA (which has no psychoactive effect), into THC (which does). This is why eating raw cannabis flower is not only unpleasant, but also just about useless for medicinal or recreational purposes.
Because edibles must be digested in order to release their active ingredients, their effects take more time to set in than those from smoking or “vaping.” However, they often last longer. Always exercise caution and patience when consuming edibles. Do not exceed the dosing recommendations within the specified time frame. When using edibles that contain THC for the first time, always start with one-quarter to one-half of the recommended serving. This delivers approximately 6 to 12 milligrams of THC.
Edibles should never be used by children unless they have been prescribed by a medical doctor. Always keep edibles in a lockable container and out of the reach of children. Never operate a motor vehicle or hazardous machinery and appliances while using edibles.
A recently discovered physiological system present in humans and higher animals that is involved in promoting homeostasis – the body’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment by adjusting its physiological processes to compensate for various internal and external changes.
For example, the body’s homeostatic processes maintain a constant body temperature, regulate oxygen, pH and glucose levels in the blood, activate the immune system, remove waste products from the blood via kidney functions, and even affect sleep cycles, personality traits and mood states.
This system uses endocannabinoids produced in the body and phytocannabinoids found in foods and other natural substances, such as cannabis, to control and coordinate the physiological functions that promote homeostasis. It is becoming recognized as one of the most complex and important body systems for establishing and maintaining overall human health.
Any cannabis strain of mixed Indica and Sativa “ancestry.” Hybrids are usually developed to intensify or suppress certain characteristics, properties and effects of the plant, and optimize it for various medicinal or recreational uses.
Cannabis hybridization occurs spontaneously in nature. However, creating desirable and optimized hybrids requires selective breeding, as well as carefully controlled cultivation environments, processes and procedures, in order to produce stable genetics, consistently high quality plants and repeatable results.
One of the three major subspecies of cannabis – the others being sativa and ruderalis. Indica strains originated in higher elevation geographic areas predominantly in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, northern India and Turkey. The plants are generally short and stocky with beautiful, broad shade leaves, and are full with dense, heavy, fragrant flowers. They have a much shorter flowering time and generally a greater yield than sativa plants. Their flavors and aromas range from fruity to “skunky.”
Indicas generally have a stronger analgesic effect and can be physically and mentally relaxing to the point of sleepiness or full “couch lock.” They also often enhance the sensations of taste, touch and sound.
Cannabis and/or its constituent cannabinoids, such as THC, CBD and CBN that is used to treat disease and medical conditions or alleviate symptoms. The cannabis plant has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years in many cultures around the world. It is one of the 50 “fundamental herbs” in traditional Chinese medicine.
Today, medicinal cannabis is rapidly gaining acceptance in the traditional medical community in the US and abroad. It is being studied, tested and/or prescribed as a treatment for a growing range of medical conditions, including pain, nausea and vomiting, neurological conditions, Alzheimer’s Disease, glaucoma, epilepsy, diabetes, Tourette Syndrome and cancer.
One of the three major subspecies of cannabis – the others being indica and ruderalis. Sativa strains originated in equatorial regions and are commonly found in Columbia, Mexico, Thailand, southern India and sub-Saharan Africa. Sativa plants are generally taller than indicas and have larger flowers, which take far longer to mature. Their flavors and aromas range from fruity to eye-watering ammonia notes. Sativas generally produce characteristic “high” effects,” ranging from cerebral and creative to energetic and euphoric.
Organic compounds found in essential oils, resins and balsams derived from plants. Terpenes are generally responsible for the specific smells and flavors of plants, especially cannabis. Certain cannabis strains can contain more than 200 distinct terpenes, and no other plant genus on Earth offers a more extraordinary array of tastes and aromas.
Beyond this, researchers are discovering the enormous therapeutic potential of terpenes. Some can help increase alertness, improve mood and combat depression. Some help relax muscles and relieve pain, inflammation, stress, and anxiety. Some have anticonvulsant effects and even antimicrobial effects that may help heal burns without scarring. The medicinal possibilities are staggering.
The primary psychoactive cannabinoid found in the cannabis plant. THC has analgesic effects and can be used to relieve pain. Other effects include relaxation, appetite stimulation and sensory alteration. THC is also an antioxidant that helps protect the brain from oxidative stress.
A device that heats cannabis flower or concentrate to a temperature that releases its active ingredients (e.g. THC, CBD, CBN, other cannabinoids and terpenes) in the form of a light mist or “vapor” that is inhaled by the user. As opposed to burning cannabis flower, which creates smoke, “vaping” is essentially smokeless and the vapor has little, if any, aroma.
Vaping is becoming a popular alternative to smoking cannabis rolled in paper or loose in a pipe. Vaporizers come in a variety or shapes and sizes from plug-in tabletop models to inconspicuous, portable, battery-powered “pens” and “inhalers.” Smaller vaporizers are generally more convenient to use than smoking paraphernalia. They also permit a far more discreet use of cannabis products.